Additional information regarding this data set

This data is available as is for non-commercial use. Any publications resulting from use of the data should acknowledge the owner, Per Klingbjer, and the following reference should be used

Klingbjer, P. and Moberg, A., 2003: A composite monthly temperature record from Tornedalen in northern Sweden, 1802-2002. International Journal of Climatology 23. XX-XX.

Description of the series

The main task of this project was to reconstruct a temperature series for northernmost Sweden (65-68° N) commencing 1802, using data from three places in the Tornedalen area in Subarctic Sweden. The early data have been combined with the temperature series from the synoptic weather station in Haparanda, beginning in August 1859, to develop a continuous Tornedalen temperature series with monthly means 1802-2002. The temperature data between 1802 and 1859 have been adjusted to correspond to Haparanda temperatures using information from time periods with overlapping observations, both in the early period and in recently made observations at the original sites. Additional information for homogenizing the series were obtained from temperature series for Vardø in Norway, Oulu and Helsinki in Finland. The composite temperature series and the results so far have been published in a paper by Klingbjer and Moberg (2003).

Temporal extent of the observational data used to reconstruct the temperature series.

Between 1802 and 2000, there has been a warming trend in Tornedalen at an average rate of 0.099°C decade-1 or 1.97°C in total. The total warming explained by linear trends was largest in winter (2.83°C) followed by spring (2.17°C), autumn (1.87°C) and summer (0.88°C). The annual warming trend during 1802-1900 was slightly larger than that for 1901-2000. Warming in winter contributed most to the rise in annual temperatures during the 19th century, whereas spring contributed most in the 20th century. The 1810s was the coldest decade in the entire Tornedalen record and the 1810 annual mean temperature (-2.5°C) was the second coldest after 1867 (-2.7°C). Comparison with St. Petersburg and Uppsala indicates that the cold period around 1810 was relatively more severe at Tornedalen, but it was also strong at the rather continentally situated St. Petersburg. The warmest decade was the 1930s, after which a strong cooling trend occurred until the 1970s (-0.325°C decade-1, 1941-1970). Warming then set in again to the end of the series (0.227°C decade-1, 1971-2002).

Annual mean temperature series from 1802 to 2002.

The top five temperature extremes (cold and warm) during 1802 to 2002 for the Tornedalen series, divided into year, season and month. The number before the year in the coldest and warmest month column refers to the month number.

References ( pdf: 70 kb)

Downloadable data

Temperature series

The data file are comma separated (.csv) and have the following format:
Column 1 year given as yyyy
Column 2-13 monthly means (jan-dec)
Column 14 annual mean

Tornedalen temperature series (ºC)